Paralympic Cycling Track Events and Classes

Paralympic cyclists are required to compete under the same conditions and rules as cyclists at the Olympic Games. In order to qualify for the para-cycling classification, a cyclist must be diagnosed with a health condition that causes permanent impairment, such as amputation, spinal cord injury, loss of sight, paralysis or cerebral palsy.

While on the track, cyclists ride tandem or solo bicycles.

Track Events

There are four events in the Para-cycling track in which qualified Paralympic cyclists may compete:

1. One-Kilometer Time Trial

The event kicks off with a one-kilometer time trial, in which competing athletes race against the clock to see who can reach the one-kilometer mark the fastest.

2. Tandem Sprint

In the first round, eight of the fastest pairs compete in a 200-meter time trial. The pairs progress to the knockout stages, in which pairs compete to win “best of three” over three laps.

The Tandem Sprint is a tactical event, with riders competing for position before making that final sprint for the line.

3. Team Sprint

In this round, two teams of three riders complete three laps for the best time. Teams start at opposite ends of the track, with riders taking turns to complete one lap. The final rider will set the team’s time when crossing the finish line at the end of the final lap.

4. Individual Pursuit

In the fourth round, athletes compete individually. Competitors start at opposite ends of the track with the goal of catching their opponents. Athletes who catch and pass their opponents win the race.

The four athletes who log the best times will progress to the next round. First- and second-place cyclists will compete for gold and silver, while third- and fourth-place competes for bronze.

Factored Events

When cyclists from different classes compete against one another, the event will be factored. With factored events, each athlete’s level of impairment is taken into account. Some riders will have their times factored, while others will not.

Several cycling events at the 2012 London Olympics were factored, including C1-2-3 kilo for men and women; and the C4-5 kilo for men and women.

The gold medal will be awarded to the athlete with the fastest time after the times have been factored.

Cyclist Classes

There two classes in Paralympic cycling:

Bicycle (C1-C5)

Athletes who can’t ride a standard bicycle can compete in the cycling events, in which they ride a spinning bike on the track. Every effort is made to make the experience as realistic as possible using the best spinning bikes available.

There are several classifications under the Bicycle class, including: C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5. The C1 classification includes the most severely impaired athletes, while the C5 classification includes athletes with impairments that have a minimum effect.

Tandem (B)

Cyclists with visual impairments who are classified together will ride on tandem bicycles with a sighted pilot or guide rider. The level of visual impairment varies, from no light perception to a limited visual field or a visual acuity of 6/60.

Classification is an ongoing process. Every athlete is observed regularly by classifiers to ensure fairness and consistency for all competing athletes.

Get Involved

While not many people have access to a velodrome, there are ways to get involved in cycling. From cycling in the outdoors, or using an interactive exercise bike at home like the NordicTrack S15i. There are plenty of ways to get involved in cycling.

Wales Disability Sport Numbers Swell with Record Number of Players

More people with disabilities in Wales are participating in sport than ever before, according to new data. Disability Sport Wales (DSW) attributes the growth in participants to Grassroots Investment and the Paralympic legacy.

The next step is to allow disabled people to take part in mainstream sport.

The new figures were released just as 600 people participated in Cardiff’s 10th annual Wheelchair Sport Spectacular.

Jon Morgan, executive of DSW, was pleased with the increased figures, which had been on the rise over the last decade.

While the numbers were impressive, Morgan says more needs to be done to allow disabled athletes to participate in mainstream sport. The DSW executive says the biggest challenge in sports is to “be more inclusive,” so the disabled can participate in “mainstream clubs.”

Mainstream clubs are now being offered the support and education for this to happen, Morgan says.

The move would allow disabled people to walk up to any local club and participate in the sport they love, whether they live in an urban or rural area.

Progress is being made, according to Morgan. The Tata Steel sailing club currently has 26 disabled members. There are 14 integrated members in the Dolphins water polo club, and 20 integrated members taking part in the Maldwyn Dragons gymnastics club.

Disabled sportspeople are also taking part in other sports as well. The St. Patrick’s karate club in Cardiff has 35 disabled members, while the Gelli Galed bowling club currently has 43 integrated members.

“Things are moving the right way,” says Morgan.

Through a government-funded program in Wales, disability sport development officers were placed in 22 local authorities in 2000.

John Griffiths, Sports Minister, says the Welsh government acknowledges the “valuable contribution” physical activity and sports offers to a person’s overall health and well-being. Griffiths expressed his hope that that the number of integrated participation opportunities and disability sports clubs continues to rise.

Laura McAllister, chair of Sports Wales, said the increased number of participants is expected after the Paralympics and Olympics, but Wales had been working for more than 10 years to build the infrastructure to reach this point.

McAllister said she is often asked about Wales’s record number of players in disability sport when she travels to different countries. She attributes the rising number of players to the country’s investment at the grassroots to allow all people, no matter their disability, to play sport.

The effort seems to be paying off, with many Welsh athletes setting world records at the Paralympics and in other disabled sports competitions.

In 2002, there were 30 disability sports clubs in Wales. That number swelled to 331 by 2012. Membership in disabled sports clubs jumped 10%, and participation numbers are up to over one million from 927,000 over the last year. The number of coaches is on the rise, too, with numbers jumping from 1,621 to 1,766 in 2012. Since the Paralympics and Olympics, an additional 160 people have volunteered.

Morgan says future major events, like the championships in Swansea in 2014, will help Welsh disabled athletes “inspire the nation,” much like they did in 2012.

6 Walking Rehabilitation Exercises for All Stages of Recovery

Recovering from an injury takes time, but exercise can help move the process along by allowing you to rebuild strength and endurance. Walking rehabilitation can be a challenge, particularly if you’re recovering from knee arthroscopy, but there are a number of exercises that you can do at home to restore mobility and begin restoring your strength.

Note: Always talk to your doctor before starting any exercise program.

Initial Exercises

1.     Quadriceps Contraction

A simple exercise that can be performed on the floor with a towel. Start by laying down on your stomach. Place a towel roll underneath the ankle of your affected leg.

What you want to do is push your ankle downward into the towel. The goal is to straighten the leg as much as possible.

Hold the position for five seconds, and relax.

You want to repeat this ten times on the affected leg. You can repeat on the opposite leg as well for an additional ten repetitions.

2.     Standing Leg Raises

If you still have some difficulty maintaining your balance, you may support yourself when performing this exercise.

Begin by standing straight, supporting yourself if needed. From here, you want to lift your leg forward while keeping your knee straight – as if you were gently kicking a ball.

When you reach a more advanced stage in your rehabilitation, you can add weights to your ankles to strengthen your knee and hip muscles. Initially, you’ll use one pound weights and work your way up to five pounds over the course of four weeks.

Intermediate Exercises

1.     Half-Squat with a Chair

Squats are an excellent exercise for lower body strength, but during recovery, you’ll want to avoid moving into a full squat and use a chair for extra stability.

Hold onto the back of a sturdy chair (or a countertop if you wish) and place your feet 6-12 inches from the chair.

With your back straight, bend down into a squat. Do not bend any lower than 90 degrees.

Hold the position for 5-10 seconds before standing up slowly.

Repeat this exercise ten times.

2.     Quadriceps Stretch

This move will help you regain flexibility while alleviating tension.

Start by standing straight with the knee of the affected leg bent. Pull your heel toward your buttocks gently. You should feel a gentle stretch in the front of your leg.

Hold the stretch for five seconds. Repeat ten times, switching legs after one round.

Advanced Exercises

1.     Cross Trainer

Once you’ve reached the advanced stage of your rehabilitation, you may begin using an elliptical crosstrainer to continue building strength and mobility.

While you may be nearing the end of your rehab, it’s important to still take it easy when using a cross trainer. Make sure the resistance is light at first until you have the proper strength to progress to heavier resistance.

Start with just a few minutes of exercise and work your way up to 20 minutes per day.

2.     Lateral Step-Ups

For this exercise, you’ll need a 6” high step or stool.

Lead with your affected leg, and step up onto the stool. Only one leg should be up on the stool or step. Now, step down to return to your starting position.

Repeat ten times, and perform the same exercise on the opposite leg if necessary.

Paralympics Star Aled Davies Earns Double World Champion Title in Doha

Aled Davies, Paralympics legend, was crowned double world champion, adding the discus F42 gold to his shot putt title won at the IPC World Championships in Doha.

Davies was in top form, holding a commanding lead from start to finish of the event. The Welshman set two world records with his 49.59m effort in the fifth round and completing the double double. Davies achieved the same feat in Lyon in 2014.

The Paralympics legend completed this impressive achievement after recovering from hernia surgery just 11 weeks ago.

Davies was “delighted” and said the competition was one of the most “consistent” for him. Four of the champion’s throws were over the previous world record, while six were in.

“I’m pain free as well,” Davies said.

The 2012 Paralympics discus champion said he couldn’t have imagined himself here ten weeks ago, and thanked the British Athletics medical team for their hard work. Davies says he owes his two gold medals to the medical team.

“Without them, I wouldn’t have done it,” he said.

The medal was one of eight won by the Great Britain team on Wednesday. Kyron Duke of Cwmbran took home the F41 javelin bronze medal after throwing 37.99m in the second round. It was the fourth medal for Duke.

Sam Bowen took fifth in the final F44 discus, with a best of 8.04m in the first round.

Richard Whitehead and Hannah Cockroft both won gold medals to complete a triumphant day for the British Athletics after a week of competition.

A major highlight from the evening was in the final T3 800m when Cockroft led a one-two-three. Cockroft added a seventh world title to her belt, setting a 2:07:10 championship record. Kare Adenegan, age 14, and Mel Nicholls took home bronze and silver medals.

Adenegan and Nicholls were just as impressive, with times of 2:09.66 and 2:09.26 respectively. The youngest member of Britain’s team led the field before Cockcroft surged ahead, powering her way to victory.

Richard Whitehead tied the world record for the T42 200m with 24.10 in the semi-finals, earning the first gold medal of the evening for Britain. The world champion overhauled the field to land a hat-trick of gold medals.

David Henson, 2014 Invictus Games champion, ranked seventh in his very first world final, just behind Whitehead, his mentor. Hensen caught his blade when he came off the bend, but managed to remain composed and recorded a finish time of 27.08.

Toby Gold and Dan Bramall added two more medals to the T33 100m final, taking home bronze and silver respectively. Bramall got the head start and recorded a time of 18.93, while Gold sealed his spot in third place with a time of 19.27.

Claire Harvey came in eighth in the F55 discus, recording her best of 18.43m in the third round.

Winning the semi-final, Graeme Ballard advanced to the T36 100m final with a time of 12.37.

Welshman Jordan Howe also moved onto the T35 100m final, securing the third position in 12.92s.

Disability Football with the Welsh Football Trust

Football is integrated into the lives of young children. The world’s most played sport, everyone should have a chance to play football even if they have a disability. The Welsh Football Trust has enabled countless players with all levels of disability be part of something bigger – a squad of players.

What is Disability Football?

Disability football in Wales was much different 15 years ago than it was today. Players with disabilities were often left in unorganized competitions and were not able to join fully inclusive programs in an effort to hone their skills.

It was a playing field that was not level.

This all changed in 2004. In 2004, there was:

  • No coach education programs to train the disabled
  • No player pathways to hone their skills and advance their skills
  • No structured programs in clubs or schools

There were only four disability teams in all of Wales at this time.

And this had to change. Disability football is the same as football at any level, but it’s geared towards those players that have disabilities that stop them from being able to play on a standard team.

Disability football allows for a better structure, coaching, and options for disabled players to be able to excel in football.

What Regional and National Squads Are Included?

Disabilities come in all types. Regional and national squads are formed to allow players to excel despite their disabilities. There are two main regional squad types:

  • Learning Disability (LD)
  • Cerebral Palsy (CP)

These players are able to play in South and North Wales and are nominated to their respective teams. Players will be able to enter into programs to:

  • Provide the right coaching, with special training for disabled players
  • Develop the skills of the most talented players for the LD and CP national squads

Welsh LD National Squad

The Welsh LD national squad included 22 players from across the country ages 16 to 26. The players are able to join contact camps throughout the year. International play against Northern Ireland pushed the squad into the mainstream in November 2012.

Welsh Deaf Futsal Squads

The squad was formed in July 2013 and marked the first time the squad played together. The team was able to train and enter camps in an effort to prepare for the European Deaf Sports Organization championship qualifiers.

Player pathways are available to help players with disabilities overcome their hardships and excel.

History Behind the Welsh Football Trust

The Welsh Football Trust started to change the landscape of football for disabled players between 2005 and 2010. The goal was to create a level playing field for players, and this was accomplished through a grassroots structure.

The results were:

  • 532 registered players
  • 24 community clubs
  • 2 regional festival leagues
  • An annual competition; national and regional school finals
  • Disability coach education course

And there were three specific impairment playing opportunities founded.

Between 2010 and 2014, the Trust had an uptick of 42% players, and three regional PAN disability leagues were formed with 30 clubs in total. The FAW coaching deaf footballers course was also created to help deaf players excel on the field through proper coaching techniques.

The National Deaf Futsal Cup was also created.

The Welsh Football Trust has goals to reach “insport” accreditation, promote performance programs, and register 6% of the disabled population in football.